6 December 2015 (Last update: 20 September 2018)  
GERMAN


Blueprint of the Fortress Europe*
Without bashing of politicians and agitation against foreigners . . .


1. Assessment of the situation without self-delusion and deceit.
The Dublin III Regulation, which should prevent uncontrolled migration of asylum seekers, is de facto invalid since 2014. And the German government initiated a dynamic that has become almost beyond control. On 25 August 2015, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees announced via Twitter: “#Dublin procedures of Syrian citizens are de facto not pursued any more at this point in time.” On 31 August, Chancellor Angela Merkel issued the slogan: “We can do it!From the 4th of September on, she (in agreement with Austrias Chancellor Werner Faymann) permitted thousands of refugees and migrants who were stranded in Hungary to enter Germany without identity checks.**

In doing so, she not only committed her own population but also forced her course of action upon all the other EU citizens (without due consultation). Countless immigrants from the Orient and from Africa crossed the borders: entire families, single mothers with their children, unaccompanied minors, political persecutees, traumatised war victims, wrecked rebels, war-worn deserters, pleasure-loving fortune hunters, bloodthirsty terrorists . . .
Most of them want to stay. And more asylum seekers are coming to Europe every day . . . 

The factual maximum upper limit, however, has been passed. 
Refugees and migrants are diverting a lot of money and human resources from other pressing priorities. Most of the housing markets, labour markets, educational facilities, social welfare systems and administration courts are already hopelessly overstrained. The countries are arguing over refugee distribution quotas. The freedom to travel is in question. Many citizens voice vociferous protests. Some even turn violent . . . 

Many migrants with no right of residence resist their deportation.
And among refugees, disappointment is spreading. The Culture of Welcome has given most of them false promises: fast handling of their applications, family reunion, life outlook . . . 

The public services and civil societies certainly deserve more praise and gratitude for their humanitarian work. But this should not blind us to the reality of the crisis. Europe will still have to deal with the aftermath for quite a while – including conflicts for economic resources and terror.  

The majority of Europeans do not want to take in more immigrants. But in the future, many more will seek their salvation in Europe. And as Nobel Prize winners (2012), we EU citizens have a reputation to loose: Europe as a humanitarian union and stronghold of human rights.

2. Our politicians should do more plain talking; they should plan for the longer term; they should abandon dogmatism and noncommittal fantasy . . .

We desire a benevolent pragmatism that seeks the greatest fortune of the largest number.

Reforms are needed: The EU should stay away from areas where the Member States do it best themselves; most Council decisions should be taken by majority and not unanimously; the fight against youth unemployment should be at the top of the agenda . . . 

New financial resources: effective measures against the waste of taxpayers money and EU funds, consequent fight against tax evasion and avoidance, EU-wide introduction of a financial transaction tax and a wealth tax . . . 

3. True solidarity cannot be enforced. The former Eastern bloc countries, especially, cannot be urged to transform themselves into multicultural societies. They have already taken in hundreds of thousands refugees and migrant labourers from the Ukraine. Immigrants from the Orient and from Africa are not welcome there. 

A “fair” distribution of refugees across all countries of the EU would also attract more of them: the more there are distributed the more would come. And most dont want to be distributed anyway - they not only seek refuge but (naturally) also a better economic future in the rich countries.

4. The inadequate funding of UNHCR and WFP was a scandalous injustice and an unforgivable stupidity. How to go on?
On 4 February 2016, the London conference for Supporting Syria and the Region raised more than €9 billion. Consequently, the German government calls for a UN refugee fund to solve problems locally. But the UN Refugee Agency still does not get enough money (2018) . . .

Keep in mind: Some of the poorest countries bear the greatest burden when it comes to helping refugees. Lebanon, Jordan, Iran and Pakistan each have over one million refugees (registered and unregistered) within their borders. We “must help before the dam bursts!” (Abdullah II, King of Jordan) 

But: Mainly the “pleasure-loving fortune hunters” will still seek their salvation in Europe, even if the living standard in refugee camps is improved . . .

Turkey hosts more immigrants than any other country (over 3.5 million). The EU should provide more support. But a policy of appeasement with the Turkish government - a policy that establishes more and more dependencies and concessions - would be an epochal mistake. The lifting of visa requirements for all Turkish citizens would certainly lead to more immigration into the EU. And Turkey’s entry to the EU would overstrain both sides by far. The desirable aim is a privileged partnership with this beautiful country at the Bosphorus.

5. Some Greek islands near the Turkish coast are no longer a pleasant living environment for the local population: immigrants cause problems, industry and tourism lie in tatters . . . . And it is very difficult to protect this external border of the EU. The European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) can only perform their tasks if Turkey is willing to take the unwanted immigrants back.

The EU-Turkey agreement (18 March 2016) contains irregular migration in the Aegean. But it causes too many legal and practical problems. And only the Aegean islands offer options for a long-term solution of the crisis on the territory of the EU.

Ergo: an Aegean island should become a Safe Haven for refugees.

6. It should be a sparsely populated island of 200-300 km² area. The islanders would have to be resettled with consideration and generously compensated. Government, parliament and people of Greece would have to be persuaded with great sensitivity and a multi-billion-euro stimulus package.

Asylum seekers are then given legal entry: A ferry service is established between Turkey and the island. This requires a fair agreement with Turkey. And the Geneva Convention is applied to immigrants, i.e. no entry for suspected terrorists, war criminals, economic migrants and refugees who already found security from persecution in the Middle East (like most war refugees). Entry permits are granted to persons who have a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion. Family members of refugees who are already living in Europe get a special right. Illegal immigrants and rejected asylum seekers are sent back to Turkey or to the countries of origin.

Recognised refugees may settle on the island and participate in the development. They can establish hospitals, kindergardens and schools. They can follow a trade or carry on commerce and, to a large extend, organise the administration themselves. The EU ensures their safety. And those who want to give up their protection status can leave at any time.
(Sadly, Australia’s Pacific Solution turned into a nightmare and made every “island solution” seem suspicious. And the debates about distribution quotas and upper limits hamper every discussion about a reasonable solution.)

Even refugees who are already living in Europe then have an alternative: They don’t have to integrate themselves in our societies. They may live near their homeland until they feel safe to return. 

Keep in mind: There are many, partly intractable problems with the integration of immigrants. And it will be very difficult to bring the Syrian war refugees back to their homeland, even when the war ends, since they are seen as traitors to their fatherland. (Presumably, returning will be made easier for refugees in the neighbouring countries.)

13 April 2018: From Legal EU Resident to Outlaw in Turkey: More Syrians Flee Germany sputniknews.com 

In particular, refugees with subsidiary protection status will be happy to move to the island if theyre allowed to make their claims for family reunification. Their applications can then get quickly processed and decided to the best interests of the children. That alone makes the effort worthwhile. The suspension of family reunification for persons with subsidiary protection status became necessary to restrict immigration. But if we force traumatised children and young people to live separated from their parents for years, we create problems we have to fear. 

Hence: For now, we certainly would have to try to unite the families in the East, i.e. bring the children back – if we are not willing to allow the parents into Europe.

Id est: We could do without debates about distribution quotas and upper limits. And all those who hold humanity close to their heart should (actually) agree.

But is it practicable?

7. Is there a way to a better agreement with Turkey? 
The existing Refugee Deal (signed by the individual EU States, not by the European Council) is no great achievement of foreign policy. And with its growing authoritarianism, the Turkish government is a heavy burden. Turkey itself could soon produce many refugees again (like in the 1990ties). Next to Kurds and other minorities, also oppositional ethnic Turks are systematically persecuted and antagonised now. Many of them might want to start a new life in Europe. But we Europeans do not want to import the Turkish conflicts. And if there is no “island solution” . . . 

Theoretically, the EU and Turkey have the legal obligation, even without an agreement, to treat all immigrants in a humanitarian way and inhibit criminal activities like migrant smuggling and human trafficking. The deal of 2016, however, which only gives protection to a group of refugees if another group risked their lives, is not humanitarian. And not only in Turkey, also in Europe, many immigrants suffer great need.

Practically, it is a permanent crisis that demands ever more acts of solidarity with strangers. 
But: practically, an unlimited obligation does not exist. The limits of obligations are defined by the capability of the helpers. If a county is burdened beyond its capability, it cannot be be obliged to respect a right that provides help to citizens of other countries.

The refugee crisis is an migrant crisis, the end of which cannot be foreseen. Those who say “solution” actually mean a reasonable management of the crisis. And of course, one or the other law has to be changed.

Turkey already faces a mighty mountain of problems. The dimensions are dramatic: The proverbial Anatolian hospitality reaches its limits. Democracy reaches its limits. The government reaches its limits . . .

National self-preservation is the supreme principle for all countries, and in extreme emergency situations, it allows all governments the implementation of the state of emergency law. But the Turkish government harms its own interests if it goes too far – if it suppresses the people too much with anti-terror laws and puts its relations with foreign powers at risk. 
And the government knows this. It tries to find the right balance. 

The big Community of values - committed to the ideals of Enlightenment - must seek the partnership with this authoritarian country. The EU needs Turkey not only for the solution of the refugee crisis but also for the fight against the IS, for ending the civil war in Syria, for the settlement of the Cyprus question . . . . The EU has close economic relations with Turkey. Many people of Turkish background live in the EU . . . 

Conciliation is of great interest to both sides. And the existing agreement should only be a first step to master the immigration disaster. A humane solution must include safe and legal routes into the EU. At least one special zone, managed jointly by Turkey and the EU, should be set up on the Turkish coast. 

But how can this be done when the EU must provide protection for Turkish citizens who are being persecuted by their own government?
Answer: This cannot be done.

At this point in time, there is rather the danger that Turkey withdraws from the existing agreement. And then what?

An alternative could be: Our Border Agency brings all immigrants to the Safe Haven and rejected asylum seekers on charter planes back to their homelands. And with Turkey, we have a confrontation we do not want.

With the denunciation of the agreement, however, Turkey would harm itself in many fields. And with repeated threats that are not followed up with action, the government weakens its negotiating position. More far-sightedness and willingness to reform is required. As the basic issue is Turkeys steady integration in the International Community that, according to its Charta, has noble aims: securing world peace, protection of human rights, promotion of international cooperation . . .

The government in Ankara should listen more to voices of the people again. And one hears many reasonable things: respect for civil rights, freedom of the press, solid bilateral relationships, reviving tourism, increasing research and development expenditures, high value-added production – lots of good arguments to remain open for money and ideas from East and West. 

The reward for all the hard work would be an agreement between upright-walking human beings. There will be no visa liberalisation. And the negotiations about Turkey’s entry to the EU is put on ice.*** But the dialogue should be continued, of course. What is on offer is more support for Turkey refugee response and a privileged partnership: strong, lasting relations with customs union and free-trade area and with concrete projects for the promotion of small and medium-sized enterprises in the health and education sectors. And naturally, there could be a much better common foreign and security policy: a determined fight against terrorism, extremism and organised crime . . . 

8. A realistic concept is one thing. The practical implementation might be something else. 
Only the Aegean islands offer possibilities for a long-term solution of the crisis on the territory of the EU. But there are already tremendous problems. 

March 2017: Overall, there are more than 62,000 refugees and migrants living in Greece now. About 16,000 are living on the islands of Lesbos, Leros, Samos, Kos und Chios.

The conditions In the hopelessly overcrowded reception camps are degrading for a long time, and they have already led to heavy riots. The Greek government wants to improve the situation with the building of solid accommodations and alternative quarters – it says. It even has plans to set up an internment camp on a small island in order to place rampaging nomads. But local communities are putting up increasingly harsh resistance against the enlargement of homes for unwanted immigrants. And also on the mainland – where parts of the population dependent on emergency shelters and soup kitchens - social tensions and political conflicts are rising.

The Greek government itself is putting up resistance against the resumption of the Dublin Regulation. Since 15 March 2017, asylum seekers can be sent back to the country of first entry to the EU. At the same time, recognised refugees should be distributed to other Member States. But the Greeks cannot rely on the Resettlement Program. Hence, the government tries to build a front with other first receiving countries like Italy, Malta, Spain and Bulgaria, in oder to avoid the “new Dublin”.

The poor Greeks become victims of the Arab Spring. And the big Community of values does not know a remedy?

What is actually the reason for this failure of the EU?
Is it the economic crisis in Greece? Is it the lethargy of bureaucracy? Why is the Greek government not able to do justice to its commitments with the available EU funds? Answer: Since it is not only a matter of money, of course. In March 2016, the EU has promised to send 4,000 experts for asylum procedures to Greece – a few dozen have come. And many Member States dont even want to receive a fraction of the refugee quotas they have promised. One must suspect that without the continuous work of aid organisations, the situation would be much more dramatic for quite some time now. 

This is a dead end - you better stay away! 
That’s the signal to all protection seekers.

Failure belongs to the deterrence strategy. 
Together with the closing of the Balkan route, this strategy is quite successful. But the question is: For how long?

In general: Only that which is sustainable is truly ethical. 
What a pity for this beautiful concept! It is impossible to imagine where we would be today if we had already discussed it in the year of 2015.

We finally must stop to embarrass ourselves in front of the whole world! 
At least, weve learned a few more things. And perhaps the decision-makers are more open to a solution focused therapy now.

There are good arguments to counter the objection that the evacuation of a big island would be impractical for organisational and humanitarian reasons: Large groups of people have been successfully re-settled in regions where there are large artificial barrier lakes now; many of them were happy to begin a new life. In this sense, the Greeks are remunerated in a princely manner.  

And the basic right to asylum remains, but the refugees are accommodated in the guest house instead of in the living room. Thus, the credibility of the European Community of values is preserved in the long run.****

There is, however, a strange phenomenon: even politicians and journalists, who advocate a merciless austerity and/or the distribution of the refugees to all EU countries, are voicing big concerns over the evacuation of an island. “We cannot demand that from the poor Greeks,” they say. And although they must know that Europe, in the long run, has no other choice but to restrict immigration, they wouldn’t expect the refugees to live on a beautiful island.
Beware of a Culture of Hypocrisy!

Could a crush of immigrants happen there again? 
The return of migrants to Turkey is proceeding only very slowly. The Balkan migration route is not closed. Thousands of immigrants are waiting for an opportunity to continue their journey. Albania refuses to host EU migrant centres. In September 2017, Serbia abolished the visa requirement for Iran. More and more Turkish citizens are fleeing to the EU. And the situation in the Aegean could become much more dramatic if the refugee deal is off or even more hostilities break out in the Middle East. Sooner or later, somebody could give the order to evacuate an islands to place immigrants - by force . . .  
Do we want that?

13 March 2017: Balkan migration route is ‘not closed’ euractiv.com 
11 February 2018: Only 16 pct of asylum seekers can be sent back to Turkey ekathimerini.com
30 March: Iranians use visa-free travel to Serbia to flee to EU dailymail.co.uk

Refugee routes: Google

9. On the Western and Central Mediterranean routes, the geosphere does not offer adequate opportunities, but there is another solution: African countries receive more economic aid if they readmit their own nationals and prevent new migration. UN Safe Zones for refugees are set up in sub-Sahara Africa. Libya is pacified by peacekeeping forces of the United Nations and of the African Union. (Easier said than done.) The EU’s naval mission extends its area of operation in order to save as many lives as possible. And the rescued are returned to EU Safe Zones in North Africa where only recognised refugees are granted the right of residence.

There is no human right to settle in the European Union! That’s the message to the world. And once it is understood that the recue in the Mediterranean does not include a ticket to Europe, deaths in the sea will come to an end. (Smart people have been preaching this for years.)

In March 2016, Italy’s interior minister Angelino Alfano has already warned that the refugee system is at risk to collapse: “Without returns, either you organise real prisons, or it’s obvious that the system will collapse. It doesn’t take a prophet to glimpse the future.”

Partnerships in the areas of migration with African states can contain irregular migration. But: agreements with autocratic racketeers are difficult on both a practical and legal level. And the alliance with Libyan coast guards, who are trained and paid by the EU since autum 2016, is contrary to international law. They are empowered to do what European crews, under international law, are not allowed to do: they can return the people from international waters to Libya where they may be at risk of mistreatment and abuse. That must change.

27 May 2018 : Austrias Sebastian Kurz wants to use EU border guards in Africa dw.com 
19 June: Council President Tusk wants “disembarkation platforms” outside the EU politico.eu 

On the European Council meeting (28/29 June), the Heads of State and Government decided a paradigm shift in migration policy: In the future, boat people in the Mediterranean should be intercepted and returned to disembarkation platforms in North Africa, in order to make swift decisions about their protection status. In close cooperation with UNHCR and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), everything should comply with international law. But there are still many legal and practical problems in the implementation. The question where such platforms could be established remains an open question. And unclarified also is the question of how recognised refugees should be distributed among the Member States. 

28 June: European Council meeting - Conclusions www.consilium.europa.eu

In contrast, EU Safe Zones should not be transit stations on the trip to Europe. As in the Aegean, they are Safe Havens for recognised refugees. The cooperation with UNHCR and IOM is a matter of course. And equally, many legal and practical issues need to be clarified – in particular the question about the locations. Such oases for refugees would certainly have destabilizing effects on coastal countries in North Africa. But exactly the war-torn Libya could become a good partner because the country is likely to stabilise in the process – if the necessary measures are taken . . . 

Obligatory task: Those who are talking about “securing of external borders” (and thereby raise a cheer) would also have to explain how this can be done.
At present, all those who reach an external border and say “asylum” should be allowed to enter the EU and get an asylum procedure (which is admittedly not always the case).
According to the Sea External Borders Regulation (EU 656/2014), border surveillance is governed by the fundamental maritime rescue obligations and the principle of non-refoulement conferred by the Geneva Convention on Refugees. The action forces are not allowed to push off boats and force conversion to the open sea or deport people without individual examination to countries where they are in danger of life or freedom. That will not change with an increase of budget and personnel for Frontex. Safe Zones must be set up. And then, the EU Council can give the Border Agency another mandate: Bring the asylum seekers into a Safe Zone! 

The practical implementation also includes a new, reality-oriented definition of “safe third counties”, of course. For persons who are not persecuted for personal reasons in their home country, the country can be considered safe – even if there are danger zones and human rights are being violated. With the appropriate measures, such countries then can be persuaded to take their citizens back. Otherwise, also the migrants would have to be granted protection until the security situation in their home country is sustainably improved. 

On the Libyan coast, the first EU Safe Zone could soon become reality – if the EU is smart and tough enough in the negotiations. The many people who are stranded there will then be subjected to legal screening. At the same time, UN Safe Zones for refugees are set up in sub-Sahara Africa. And the protection seekers are required to apply for asylum in the nearest Zone. This avoids the pull effect to the north and puts also an end to deaths in the Sahara dessert. 

As of 20 July 2018: Libya rejects EU plans for migrant centres on its territory reuters.com

The fight against the causes of flight, however, will take several generations:  
1. Africas political elites would have to be forced to further the common welfare. 
Then, the aggressive economic policy of foreign powers and the ruthless exploitation by multinationals would be contained . . .

10. The EU should contribute much more to the sustainable pacification and development of the Western Balkan countries. There are already retreat areas for Salafists . . . . A multi-billion-euro stimulus plan can offer positive and improved living standards for many people. And in the medium term, this also includes the EU integration of these countries.
In order to combat misuse, legal reform of people’s right to freedom of movement in the EU (free movement of workers and freedom of establishment) will prove inevitable anyway. Wage dumping and immigration into the social systems must be prevented. Those who are insisting on the current regulations are stimulating nationalism and right-wing extremism across the Union.
'Business as usual' is no longer an option, in the wake of the Brexit vote.

11. Will the Schengen area be maintained?
The abolition of border controls between the Member States implicates the commitment to secure the external borders against illegal immigration. Yet, the serious shortcomings in control on external borders have caused a serious threat to public policy and internal security in the Schengen area.
Controls of the internal borders adversely affect the economies whose logistics are based on free border traffic. But all EU citizens have the right to protection from foreign infiltration. And all want security.

If the EU does not act, it will abolish itself. The British already decided to leave the Union - from now on, this is about containing the damage. A simple majority (51,89 %) was allowed to make a decision of such magnitude. The Brits are crazy! And our EU politicians let it happen. (The EU Treaty requires no qualified majority for a vote on the withdrawal from the European Union.)

A reform of the Dublin System is inevitable.  
Frontex secures the external borders even without the approval of the local governments but must not force them to take in immigrants. The countries themselves control most important crossing points of the internal borders and carry out inspections with mobile units on the traffic routes.
At the same time, determined and speedy work is done for the long-term solution. Safe Zones are set up in the Aegean and in North Africa. And as soon as they are receptive, Frontex gets the mandate for the transfer of asylum seekers.   

For the time being, asylum seekers must apply for asylum in the first EU country they entered. Those who want to apply for asylum in another country do not receive permission to travel (exceptions are based on family law). Those who are not in possession of valid documents must stay at camps in the border region until their identity is clarified (which actually can be a big problem). Economic migrants who are undoubtedly recognized as such have no more right to file an action . . .

For the time being, the first receiving countries would be responsible again, but the other countries should provide them much more logistical and financial support. (On the European Council meeting in June, it was only decided that they are relieved on a voluntary basis.) Asylum seekers who are returned should find decent reception. Unaccompanied minors should probably not be returned at all. Exceptions based on family law, however, should only be applied to parents and their minors . . .

Keep in mind: If the EU doesnt come up with a long-term solution in a timely manner and the first receiving countries don’t get enough support, they - sooner or later - will (must) refuse to receive or take back immigrants . . . 

Last wake-up call for Europe: The parliamentary elections in Italy (4 March 2018). 
The Italians want to see actions!

12. How does one decide the conflict of aims in migration policy - reduction of irregular migration and integration of those who have already immigrated? 

The most delicate issue is the so-called “lane change”, whereby even rejected asylum seekers are granted a regular residence status, if they are well integrated and have an employment or training relationship. 

That makes sense in Germany, for example, where there are now (2018) living more than six hundred thousand immigrants whose asylum application has failed. They are allowed to work, because most of them cannot be deported anyway. The “lane change” for rejected asylum seekers with job has been possible since 2005. And since 2016, they have the legal claim to a temporary residence. On 30 June, according to the Central Register of Foreign Nationals (AZR), only 27.373 of them were obliged to leave the country. In order to ease labour shortages, the liberalisation of the asylum and immigration law (with pull effect) has been practised for several years. Illegal conditions became legality. 

After all, the deportation of well-integrated immigrants is macroeconomic nonsense – and often a human tragedy. One does not want to undo successful efforts for integration . . .

But Germany (where about 23 percent of the population have an immigration background) says goodbye to the Culture of Welcome now. Above all, there is a lack of housing space and, increasingly, a lack of acceptance among local residents – in this densely populated county. They have less and less willingness to receive more refugees for humanitarian reasons, and they have less and less hope that the immigration of protection seekers would respond to the nursing crisis or prevent old-age poverty. Now, the debates are more and more often focused on asylum shopping, reception centres, border security . . . 

The German population is changing the lane now. It has already achieved quite a bit. It will at last honestly say that it has a great deal too much of trouble and adversity with the many immigrants. (The factual maximum upper limit has been passed in 2015).

And since the situation is similar in the other Member States, this fact must be the basis of the European migration policy. 

Only an overall concept that is accepted by the large majority of the European population, however, will ensure the necessary willingness to act. As long as the governing parties don’t have one, they will continue to lose support and have to leave the path free to so-called right-wing populists.

We should not create new incentives for immigrants who bring us into unpleasant situations. And at the same time, we need more acceptance for refugees and migrants who “make an effort”. 

Presumably, a key date regulation will be the most sensible way – if the Member States make clear announcements: After a certain date, well-integrated asylum seekers with an employment or training relationship are granted residence. Newcomers are banned from working, until their application for asylum is decided. A “lane change” is no longer possible. Rejected asylum seekers have, irrevocably, the obligation to leave the country.
In states that do not allow a “lane change” in principle, all refugees are obliged to return to their home country as soon as there are no more grounds for asylum. 

All states make joint efforts for the deportation of unwelcome guests. This can be very complicated, even with criminals and radicals, as there are many real and fake obstacles. Numerous illegal immigrants must be deported – voluntarily, if possible, and forcibly, if necessary. Voluntary returnees are assisted in their reintegration in the country of origin. A new Return Office coordinates the deportations (with charter planes) – as soon as the readmission agreements are negotiated. 

This won’t work without a firm political will and changes of the legal basis. Enforcement measures against unwanted immigrants are inevitable. Many will put up resistance, and some will become radicalised. And there will be bad press and harsh objections and vociferous protests . . .

At the same time, major reforms are put on the agenda: The millions of young people without vocational qualifications are attracted to training courses. Unemployed adults are offered more education programmes. The necessary labour migration is regulated by immigration laws. EU citizens have priority (of course). All Member States invest more in expanding the infrastructure. Banking is put on a healthy footing . . .

Misunderstandings must be avoided, of course. All this should not lead to further re-nationalisation (and weakening of our competitiveness) but to a strong and effective European Union. The Member States should stand together and fly the flag. “Fortress Europe” is a title of honour! 

Fortress Europe provides protection for the local population and asylum for refugees.

As soon as the external borders are truly secure and the refugees are granted asylum in the Aegean and in North Africa, only random checks at the traffic routes and event-related controls of the internal borders are required.

But the expansion of public surveillance measures and a better coordination of the European security services is needed. The misuse of data will not always be prevented, even with independent supervision. And the trade with fear will bear evil fruits . . .*****


We should make our choice for a reasonable solution in good time!

Short and sweet: The external borders are secured. The Dublin System is reformed. Refugees are settled on an Aegean island. The Greeks get a multi-billion-euro stimulus package. EU Safe Zones are established in North Africa. Unwanted migrants are deported to the countries of origin. Peace and development is promoted in the Western Balkan countries. 

It is logical: If we are not willing to take in so many people, we must either mercilessly reject them or offer them decent alternatives.

And we do know that everything is easier said than done . . .



* The concept is a work of common sense which considers different political standpoints. But unfortunately, everything is much more complicated by now. In December 2015, the text was still short and concise. 

** This is often presented as being without any alternative. But a statesman (like Helmut Schmidt) wouldnt have let the immigrants across the borders without identity checks. The crisis was already there! All responsible politicians have failed.

*** Just imagine Turkey becomes EU member: the EU’s external frontier would extend all the way to Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Syria and the so-called Islamic State (that is militarily defeated since December 2017). The very thought of it is enough to boost all xenophobic powers across Europe. And in case the British need a reason to vote “out of the EU” . . .
It was an unnecessary mistake to offer Turkey the prospect of membership. Some politicians will still pay greater lip service, and the Turks will make pressure for visa liberalisation. But if it turns out that they demand more than the EU citizens have on offer, there will be trouble.

**** Contrary to an event on the scale of a large volcanic eruption, where an island has to be evacuated as fast as possible, this is a matter of well thought out and organised arrangements.  
The basic questions are maybe more problematic: How do we achieve success in the negotiations with the Greek government? How do we get the EU to suspend the austerity policy and establish new contracts? Will one island provide enough space in the long run?
There are also some smaller islands that are privately owned and uninhabited, but we need a long-term solution. Refugees dont want to reside on small islands. And our Greek friends need a sustainable stimulus package anyway. On 20 August 2018, Greece emerged from its third and last bailout, but the country still has a long way to go . . .

***** The Islamic State (IS or ISIS) is an apocalyptic cult. (Barack Obama) 
It is now militarily defeated in Syria and Iraq, but it has already formed colonies and built a Digital Caliphate. And sadly, there are still more jihadist organisations. These unholy warriors will continue to spread terror - sooner or later also with chemical, radiological and biological warfare.


More honesty is required from politicians and journalists:  
1. Discuss the affair openly and honestly. 2. Find the best concept. 3. Work together.


P.S. I really created this concept by myself. Theres already talk about global migration flows in The Limits to Growth (1972) of the Club of Rome . . . . Australias Pacific Solution (2001) didnt appear to be sustainable in the long run. Not until 2011, when the Arab Spring more and more turned into a nightmare, I figured that an Aegean island could become a safe haven for refugees. In the meantime, I learned about two similar concepts: The Refugee Nation of the Californian real estate investor Jason Buzi and The Aylan Island of the Egyptian billionaire Naguib Sawiris. Both are not yet put into practice. And I think that I have to impose myself although the matter is much too big to take responsibility for. If you click onto the links at the top, you will see and hear than I actually have other priorities: High Culture.
Those who still have a sobbish attitude now, should perhaps know that Im not only a well-educated, art-loving bourgeois but also a quite diligent field researcher. The fact that I look a bit like Huckleberry Finn has many advantages . . .



Appendix

28 January 2016: Refugee/Migrant crisis in Europe: situation analysis reliefweb.int

4 February: London: World leaders pledge billions in aid for Syrians: dw.com 

24 February: Interior ministers and foreign ministers from Austria and the Balkans region meet in Vienna reuters.com

25 February: Greece recalls its ambassador to Austria bbc.com

7/8 March: EU-Turkey summit in Brussels reuters.com

9 March: Balkan countries shut borders for refugees theguardian.com

17/18 March: EU-Turkey summit in Brussels: agreement europa.eu

30 March: Geneva conference on Syrian refugees unhcr.org

7 April: President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan threatens to pull out of the migrant deal if the EU falls short on his demands by June dw.com 

12 April: Austria starts building migrant controls at Italian border dw.com

18/19 April: Foreign Affairs Council - main results consilium.europa.eu 

19 April: Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu to EU: No visa liberalisation for Turks, no refugee deal. themanews.com

European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker to Turkey: No concessions on visas for Turkey before it delivers. themanews.com

4 May: European Commission opens way for decision by June on visa-free travel for citizens of Turkey europa.eu

Questions & Answers: europa.eu

European Commission accused of blackmail after introducing fines for countries refusing refugees express.co.uk

6 May: President Erdoğan to EU: Were going our way, you go yours. reuters.com

10 May: EU Parliament suspends work on Turkey visa liberalisation euobserver.com 

16/17 May: Major powers fail to agree new date for Syria peace talks reuters.com

20 May: Turkish parliament votes to lift MPs immunity telegraph.co.uk 

21 May: Turkey refuses EU travel to highly skilled Syrian refugees dw.com

23/24 May: Old habits die hard at World Humanitarian Summit dw.com

24 May: Turkey threatens to block EU migration deal without visa-free travel dw.com

Idomeni: Greek riot police move into clear refugee camp theguardian.com

26 May: EU asks for G7s help on refugees euobserver.com

Hungarian police clash with refugees on Serb border euobserver.com

29 May: More than 700 migrants feared dead in Mediterranean this week theguardian.com

2 June: Turkey recalls Germany ambassador after genocide vote abcnews.go.com

4 June: Austrian Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz says migrants should be kept on islands, following Australian example yahoo.com

5 June: Libyan Prime Minister Fayez Seraj to EU: Do not send refugees back. sputniknews.com

7 June: Carrot and stick: EU refugee policy in Afrika dw.com

8 June: European parliament condemns Turkey for lifting MPs immunity, but only a few voices are urging a tough response dw.com 

9 June: Germanys speaker of parliament sharply criticized Turkish president dw.com

11 June: After threats, security concerns for German MPs with Turkish roots reuters.com 

14 June: German EU ambassador to Turkey resigns dpa-international.com

17 June: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) rejects EU funding in protest at refugee deal theguardian.com

18 June: UN chief Ban Ki-moon urges international support for Greece over refugees dw.com 

20 June: World Refugee Day: More than 65 million refugees worldwide mattersindia.com 

22 June: EU Commission: European Border and Coast Guard agreed europa.eu At last!

23 June: Erdoğan may call Brexit-style referendum on Turkey’s EU bid politico.eu

23/24 June: Brexit: UK votes to leave EU bbc.com What a pity! 

How did UK end up voting to leave the European Union? theguardian.com

26 June: As three million people sign a petition for a second EU referendum we ask - could it actually happen? telegraph.co.uk

28/29 June: View from Brussels: all friends together - or perhaps not theguardian.com

2 July: Brexit live: thousands 'march for Europe' in post-referendum protest theguardian.com 

11 July: Theresa May says Brexit means Brexit and . . . independent.co.uk

14 July: Theresa Mays cabinet: Whos in and whos out? bbc.com

15/16 July: Timeline: Turkeys attempted coup reuters.com

16 July: Turkey: more than 2,700 judges removed from duty independent.co.uk

18 July: Turkey coup attempt: Police and officials purged bbc.com

19 July: Turkish post-coup purges sweep through education as thousands of teachers lose their jobs euronews.com

20 July: Foreign Affairs Council - main results: consilium.europa.eu

Erdoğan declares three-month state of emergency in Turkey theguardian.com

21 July: Visegrad Group calls for EU reforms in wake of Brexit vote dw.com

40-nation summit plans next moves against Islamic State usatoday.com 

21/23 July: International Mayors Conference in Athens now-conference.org No Plan B.

23 July: Erdoğan closes thausands of private schools, charities and other institutions newsweek.com 

25 July: Turkey detains 42 journalists in crackdown as Europe sounds alarm reuters.com 

27 July: Turkey closes scores of TV stations, newspapers usatoday.com

28 July: Bavaria: German state hit by attacks presents anti-terror concept newindianexpr.com 

German Chancellor Angela Merkel thinks we still can do this.dw.com 

Turkey demands extradition of Gulen followers in Germany dw.com

31 July: Germany: Pro-Erdoğan demonstration in Cologne dailymail.co.uk 

Turkish FM: If theres no visa-free travel, no migrant deal. cleveland19.com 

1 August: EU wont budge on Turkey visa demands euobserver.com 

3 August: Greece asks for EU-Turkey migration deal 'Plan B' euractiv.com

4 August: Austrian chancellor suggests ending EU accession talks with Turkey reuters.com 

Turkish minister says Austrian chancellors comment on EU talks close to far right reuters.com 

Greece says it never asked for a 'Plan B' in EU-Turkey refugee deal euractive.com 

5 August: Report shows rise in Turkish asylum-seekers in Germany dw.com 

6 August: Austrian Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz calls EU-Turkey refugee deal a faltering house of cards euronews.com

7 August: Most Germans want to end EU migrant deal with Turkey reuters.com

Millions gather in Istanbul for raucous democracy rally dw.com 

9 August: Putin mends broken relations with Turkeys Erdoğan bbc.com

10 August: Turkey’s NATO membership is not in question politico.eu 

16 August: German govt: Turkey supports terror groups in Middle East politico.eu 

17 August: Turkey lashes out at Germany over allegations it has become Islamist hub af.reuters.com 

Germany tries to downplay Turkey 'Islamization' report dw.com

18 August: German minister says nothing to regret about report alleging Turkey a hub for Islamists reuters.com 

19 August: German interior ministers call for partial burqa ban dw.de 

Turkey: our goal is to join the EU by 2023 dw.com

Jean-Claude Juncker says Turkey not ready for EU membership vidalatinasd.com 

Pressure mounts on Greek refugee camps as more migrants come across the Aegean Sea telegraph.co.uk

21 August: Switzerland could become a new transit country for refugees meganewsweb.com 

23 August: Turkey recalls ambassador from Austria euobserver.com

25 August: Czech Republik rejects Merkels push for refugee quoatas aboutcroatia.net 

26 August: Poland: Orbán slams EUs reaction to crises during Visegrad group meeting with Merkel newsvideo.su 

30 August: Thausands of migrants rescued off Lybia bbc.com 

Migrant arrivals in Greece from Turkey spike again thenationalherald.com

Germany: Thousands of refugees exploited as illegal workers politico.eu 

1 September: Top EU officials visited Turkey to mend relations aboutcroatia.net

3 September: Turkey, EU discuss fragile relations at ministerial meeting foxnews.com

4 September: German interior minster floats idea of returning migrants to Greece dw.com 

5 September: EU migrants crisis: Lorry protests causes Calais disruption bbc.com

7 September: UNICEF report: Nearly 50 million children are refugees or migrants cnn.com

8 September: Angela Merkel and Horst Seehofer - a  lost cause dw.com

9 September: EU finance ministers urge Greece to speed up reforms irishtimes.com

Southern European leaders call for action to boost flaggig EU growth euronews.com 

10 September: The refugees stuck in Greeces holiday resorts bbc.com

11 September: Greece demands reperations from Germany for damages during the Second world war visitwinchestervirginia.com 

14 September: Jean-Claude Junker: EU faced with an existential crisis euronews.com 

16 September: Horst Seehofer: We want a solution to the Immigration Problem spiegel.de

EU summit: dark clouds over Bratislava dw.de 

17 September: Italian PM Matteo Renzi slams EU summits conclusions on growth and immigration reuters.com 

19 September: UN Summit on Refugees and Migrants diplomaticintelligence.eu 

German Development Minister Gerd Müller calls for a UN refugee fund bundesregierung.de 

Angela Merkel admits mistakes over asylum seekers after disastrous election theguardian.com 

Thousands of migrants flee burning Greek camp of Moria on Lesbos bbc.com 

20 September: Obama delivers his final speech to the UN cbsnews.com 

UN chief Ban Ki-moon rails against leaders with 'bloody hands' in Syria ctvnews.ca 

22 September: Over 500,000 rejected asylum seekers still live in Germany thelocal.de

Amnesty International urges EU not to close borders to refugees unian.info 

24 September: Migration Summit in Vienna: Is it time for a new agenda? politico.eu 

28 September: EU-Commission reports on progress made under the European Agenda on Migration europa.eu 

2 October: Hungarys refugee referendum not valid after voters stay away theguardian.com 

5 October: EU Afghanistan conference aims to renew aid dw.de 

More than 10,000 refugees rescued in zwo days in Mediterranean theguardian.com 

6 October: EU bolsters border agency to stem migrant flow dw.com 

11 October: Merkel in Africa - stemming the migrant flow euronews.com 

28 October: Thousands of refugees hide from French police as Calais ‘Jungle’ refugee camp is demolished breitbart.com 

3 November: Turkey threatens to cancel EU migration deal dw.com 

4 November: Turkey arrests pro-Kurdish party leaders amid claims of internet shutdown theguardian.com 

6 November: German ministry wants migrants returned to Africa telegraph.co.uk 

8/9 November: Presidential Election Live: Donald Trumps Victory nytimes.com 

10 November: German foreign minister to visit Turkey despite criticism of Ankara trust.org 

14 November: EU criticises Turkey but not ready to halt membership talks reuters.com 

15 November: Obama praises Greece, raps EU austerity on final foreign trip reuters.com 

Germanys foreign minister Steinmeier: Turkeys relations with EU in sorry state handelsblatt.com 

18 November: European leaders hold final meeting with Obama in Berlin euronews.com 

20 November: Fed up with EU, Erdoğan says Turkey could join Shanghai bloc reuters.com 

24 November: EU parliament urges ministers to freeze Turkey accession talks theguardian.com 

25 November: Erdoğan threatens to open Turkeys borders to Europe telegraph.co.uk 

Bulgaria to send rioting migrants to closed camps, plans extraditions reuters.com 

Migrants torch Lesbos camp after two die telegraph.co.uk

8 December: EU Commission: Asylum seekers in Europe will be sent back to Greece starting March 2017 euractiv.com 

13 December: EU statement: No new chapters on Turkey membership talks eblnews.com 

14 December: Mass deportation of rejected Afghan asylum seekers from Germany imminent dw.com 

15 December: Migration, Turkey, Syria war and Brexit dominate EU summit euronews.com 

16 December: Merkel stands by Greece as Tsipras faces German fiscal critics the-journal.com 

21 December: Berlin Christmas market attack blame game begins abc.net.au 

23 December: Berlin attack suspect shot dead by police in Milan euronews.com 

3 January 2017: Migrant crisis will tear EU apart and could destroy it in 2017, says German politician Edmund Stoiber: express.co.uk 

6 January: Allies Chalenge Merkel on Security handelsblatt.com 

10 January: Greece: severe weather places refugees at risk and government under fire theguardian.com

18 January: Germanys 'Marshall Plan' for Africa unveiled dw.com 

20 January: Donald Trump’s inauguration twitter.com/TrumpInaugural 

21 January: Turkish parliament approves presidential system reuters.com 

26 January: Germanys interior minister De Maizière calls for refugees to be held in a "safe place" outside of Europe dw.com 

27 January: President Trump Bars Refugees and Citizens of 7 Muslim Countries nytimes.com

40 Turkish NATO officers seeking asylum in Germany turkishminute.com 

29 January: Federal Judges in Brooklyn Block Parts of Trumps Order on Muslim Immigrantion bloomberg.com 

Protests against Trumps immigration plan rolling in more than 30 cities usatoday.com 

2 February: Donald Trump slams 'dumb' refugee deal with Australia after 'worst' phone call abc.net.au 

Merkel and Erdoğan hold tense meeting in Turkish capital dailymail.co.uk 

Erdoğan tells off Merkel for using phrase 'Islamist terrorism' thelocal.de 

3 February: Kellyanne Conway blames refugees for 'Bowling Green massacre' that never happene theguardian.com 

Malta Declaration by the European Council consilium.europa.eu 

4 February: Federal judge blocks Donald Trumps immigration ban aljazeera.com 

Justice Department to challenge judges halt of travel ban cnn.com 

6 February: Apple, Google, Uber Join Fight Against Trump Travel Ban abcnews.go.com 

7 February: EU faces crisis as IMF warns Greek debts are on ‘explosive’ path telegraph.co.uk 

9 February: Trump loses court battle to reinstate immigration ban news.vice.com 

17 February: Hundreds of migrants cross Spanish border, clash with police dailymail.co.uk 

German journalist Deniz Yücel taken into custody in Turkey dw.com

20 February: Munich security conference focused on Middle East sbs.com.au 

Hundreds of migrants cross fence into Spain again abcnews.go.com 

22 February: Germany passes faster migrant deportation news.com.au 

Amnesty International Report 2016/17 amnesty.org 

27 February: European Parliament President Antonio Tajani calls for EU to open refugee reception centers in Libya politico.eu 

1 March: Turkey "on the road to autocracy," Venice Commission watchdog says dw.com 

European Commission presents White Paper on the future of Europe europa.eu 

2 March: Brussels tells EU states to detain more freely migrants awaiting deportation reuters.com 

3 March: Merkel visits Egypt and Tunisia to talk about migration washingtonpost.com 

Turkish foreign minister accuses Germany of double standards dw.com 

4 March: One year after Balkan route closed, region is stuck in crisis mode dpa.com 

6 March: Foreign Affairs Council in Brussels consilium.europa.eu 

7 March: European Court of Justice rules against 'humanitarian' visas for refugees dw.com 

Hungarian parliament approves law allowing all asylum seekers to be detained ind.co.uk 

8 March: Germany’s Islamist Terrorism Hotline Is Blowing Up With Calls dailycaller.com 

9 March: Merkels EU speech couldnt help but highlight the power of nationalism dw.com 

10 March: EU summit: Brexit casts a long shadow over Europe bbc.dom 

German constitutional rights don’t apply to Turkish politicians: Court indianexpress.com

German Bundesrat says Maghreb states not safe for refugees dw.com
 


Putin and Erdoğan hold a joint press conference after meeting in Moscow sputniknews.com 

UN report details massive human rights violations against Kurds in Turkey aranews.com 

11 March: UN: World facing greatest humanitarian crisis since 1945 bbc.com

Erdoğan calls Dutch government 'Nazis' after Turkish foreign ministers plane prevented from landing in Netherlands theindependent.co.uk 

12 March: Rotterdam: Clashes as Dutch expel minister bbc.com 

13 March: Tensions rising between Turkish, European leaders before elections cnn.com 

Merkel Says the Netherlands Has Her 'Full Support and Solidarity' haaretz.com 

Turkey threatens to 'reconsider' EU migrant deal telegraph.co.uk 

Balkan migration route is ‘not closed’ euractiv.com 

14 March: EU Court rules: Ban on Head Scarves at Work Is Legal nytimes.com 

Turkey targets Dutch with diplomatic sanctions as 'Nazi' row escalates reuters.com 

15. March: Migration Deal Teeters On Edge Amid Crisis With Europe theglobepost.com 

Trump slams federal judges freeze on second travel ban usatoday.com 

16 March: Turkish minister Cavusoglu claims "holy wars will soon begin in Europe" theindependent.co.uk 

17 March: Erdogan accuses EU of 'crusade' against Islam dw.com

Turkish Interior Minister Süleyman Soylu: Lets send 15,000 migrants a month to Europe to "blow its mind" keeptalkinggreece.com 

18 March: EU-Turkey migration deal looks wobbly a year later yahoo.com 

19 March: Turkey summons German envoy over Kurdish rally in Frankfurt dw.com 

Erdoğan accuses Merkel of using ‘Nazi measures’ timesofisrael.com 

20 March: Merkel says Germany could ban Turkish campaign events capital.co.ke 

Mediterranean interior ministers meet to discuss migration flows thelocal.it 

21 March: No more Turkish rallies in Germany before referendum - organisers dailymail.co.uk 

22. March: Washington: Meeting of the Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State reuters.com 

23 March: Greek Foreign Minister Nikos Kotzia: "Greece won’t take back refugees from northern Europe" politico.eu 

24 March: 60th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome europa.eu 

25 March: Cracks on show at EU 'unity' summit in Rome telegraph.co.uk 

Brexit protests: tousands march in London to 'unite for Europe' theguardian.com 

28 March: Turkey 'spied' on pro-Gulen opponents in Germany bbc.com 

Hungary opens shipping container camp for refugees dw.com 

EU commissioner calls on Hungary to comply with asylum rules dailymail.com 

29 March: Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU bbc.com What a pity!! 

31 March: EU sets out 'phased' Brexit strategy bbc.com 

Rex Tillerson renews demand on NATO spending at Brussels meeting upi.com 

5 April: Brussels: International donors pledge $6 billion in Syria aid abcnews.go.com 

11 April: G-7 ministers appeal to Russia on Syria but reject sanctions 680news.com 

16 April: Turkey referendum: Erdoğan wins vote amid dispute over ballots – as it happened theguardian.com

17 April: German MP Norbert Röttgen calls for end of EU talks with Turkey cnn.com 

Five thousand immigrants rescued from Mediterranean in Easter surge express.co.uk 

20 April: Protests against referendum result continue in Istanbul eblnews.com 

28 April: France, Germany want new Turkey ties but dodge EU membership reuters.com 

29 April: EU leaders agree on tough stance at special Brexit summit theguardian.com 

2 May: Erdoğan warns Turkey could 'say goodbye' to EU tribuneindia.com 

7 May: French election results: Emmanuel Macron wins by landslide telegraph.co.uk 

16 May: EU executive to decide on migration penalties in June reuters.com 

Turkey says Germany must choose between Ankara and alleged coup plotters thelocal.de 

19 May: Clashes in Athens & Thessaloniki as parliament votes for austerity enoughisenough

20 May: US and Saudi Arabia sign arms deals worth almost $110bn aljazeera.com 

23 May: No bailout funds for Greece as eurozone finance chiefs fail to agree deal theguardian.com 

25 May: Donald Trump tells Nato allies to pay up at Brussels talks bbc.com

27 May: Disharmony at G7 as Trump plays his own tune inquirer.net 

1 June: Trump on Paris climate accord: 'We're getting out' cnn.com 

5 June: Germany set to quit Turkey's Incirlik airbase amid row bbc.com

13 June: EU to open case against Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic over migration reuters.com

16 June: Reality Check: Have the Greek bailouts worked? bbc.com 

18 June: France: parliamentary elections nytimes.com 

20 June: World Refugee Day: What you should know cnn.com 

28 June: Italy considers closing its ports to boats carrying migrants theguardian.com 

4 July: Austria ready to deploy army at Italy border thelocal.at 

EU Commission proposes Action Plan to support Italy europa.eu 

5 July: Italy's furious response forces Austria to back-pedal after Vienna sends tanks to border express.co.uk 

6 July: EU parliament calls for Turkey accession talks to be suspended reuters.com 

EU ministers hint they may start turning migrant boats back to Africa express.co.uk 

7 July: A Long March for Justice in Turkey nytimes.com 

G20: Live updates cnn.com 

8 July: President Erdoğan's Press Statement Following G20 Summit 2017 anews.com

9 July: Iraqi Prime Minister Arrives in Mosul to Declare Victory Over ISIS nytimes.com 
U.S.-Russian ceasefire deal holding in southwest Syria reuters.com 

12 July: Western Balkans summit: EU must keep door open to Balkan members dailymail.co.uk 

17 July: EU foreign ministers meeting: Extend mandate for naval operation off Libya irishtimes.com 

20 July: Germans warned over holiday travel to Turkey as row with Erdoğan escalates express.co.uk 

25 July: EU to Turkey: respect for rights 'imperative' to join bloc reuters.com 

EU extended the naval mission "Sophia" until the end of 2018 ansa.it 

Libyan rival leaders agree to ceasefire after Macron-hosted talk theguardian.com

26 July: European Court of Justice: EU refugee quotas 'proportionate' dw.com 

European Court of Justice rejects 'open-door' policy and upholds right of member states to deport refugees telegraph.co.uk 

27 July: France's Macron eyes special centres in Libya to handle asylum requests reuters.com 

2 August: Italian parliament gives green light to Libya naval mission reuters.com 

Italy impounds German NGO migrant rescue ship dw.com 

7 August: Libyan coastguard recovered 1,124 migrants and returned them to the Libyan coast thenigerianexpression.com

Dozens of migrants run across border in Spanish enclave of Ceuta reuters.com 

11 August: Merkel calls for greater effort to address migration causes independent.ie 

13 August: Major NGOs halt refugee rescue operations off Libyan coast dw.com 

16 August: Spain rescues 600 people in busiest day bbc.com 

28 August: Europe-Africa summit yields new approach to asylum claims abcnews.go.com 

31 August: Orbán asks Juncker for EUR 400 million to pay for border fence budapestbeacon.co 

6 September: Hungary and Slovakia Lose Fight Over E.U. Migrant Quotas nytimes.com

7 September: EU divided over calls to block Turkey’s bid hurriyetdailynews.com 

17 September: Turkey summons German ambassador to Ankara over Kurdish rally in Cologne dw.com 

19 September: UN Assembly: Turkey calls on world to fulfil aid pledges for hosting Syrian refugees un.org 

24 September: German elections theguardian.com 

26 September: French President Macrons speech on the EU reuters.com 

27 September: EU Commission proposes resettling 50,000 refugees dw.com 

30 September: EU summit: leaders promise action after brainstorming euobserver.com

1 October: Erdoğan: "Turkey no longer needs EU membership but won't quit talks." uk.reuters.com

16 October: Austria set to elect youngest EU leader in move to the right theguardian.com 

20 October: EU leaders want to 'responsibly' cut Turkey pre-accession aid: Merkel reuters.com 

7 November: Fighting to reach loved ones in Germany: One week of refugees’ hunger strike in Athens rsaegean.org 

20 November: Greek island on strike in protest against becoming migrant 'prison' reuters.com 

23 November: Manus Island: PNG police move refugees from former Australia centre bbc.com 

30 November: EU-Africa summit leaders back migrant evacuation from Libya euronews.com 

14/15 December: Eu-summit: Bitter divisions over migration threaten show of unity theguardian.com 

20 December: 15 injured and tents burned down when clashes break out in Moria camp keeptalkinggreece.com

15 January 2018: Almost half of rejected asylum seekers in Germany winning on appeal dw.com 

20 January: Turkey bombs Kurdish-controlled city of Afrin in northern Syria theguardian.com 

28 January: Refugee rights drive wedge between German coalition parties ft.com 

11 February: Only 16 pct of asylum seekers can be sent back to Turkey ekathimerini.com 

23 February: EU summit: Merkel Upsets Just About Everyone With Her EU Refugee Plan bloomberg.com 

EU to double funding for Sahel forces euobserver.com

4 March: Italy election: What does the result mean? bbc.com

  18 March: Russia election: Vladimir Putin wins by big margin bbc.com

23 March: Germanys new interior minister Seehofer lays down 'zero tolerance' policy dw.com 

26 March: EU says summit with Turkey provides no answers to concerns reuters.com 

4 April: Ankara summit: Turkey, Russia and Iran urge 'lasting ceasefire' in Syria afp.com

8 April: Hungary: Viktor Orban re-elected for third term bbc.com

13 April: From Legal EU Resident to Outlaw in Turkey: More Syrians Flee Germany sputniknews.com 

17 April: EU Commission: Turkey taking 'huge strides' away from European Union uk.reuters.com 

Greek court rules migrants must no longer be detained on Aegean islands in 'big worry' for EU telegraph.co.uk

23 April: Migrants on Greek island of Lesbos attacked by far-Right extremists telegraph.co.uk 

25 April: Syria donors fall short without U.S. aid, warn of cruel end-game reuters.com 

17 May: Sofia declaration of the EU-Western Balkans summit consilium.europa.eu 

24 May: Is Italys government on a collision course with the EU? theguardian.com 

27 May: Austrias Sebastian Kurz wants to use EU border guards in Africa dw.com 

12 June: Spain to accept disputed migrant ship Aquarius bbc.com 

14 June: Bavarians confront Merkel in German migrant policy showdown reuters.com 

15 June: Italy, France call for refugee processing centres in Africa aljazeera.com 

19 June: European Council President Tusk wants “regional disembarkation platforms” outside the EU politico.eu 

21 June: Italy Interior Minister Refuses Port to Migrant Rescue Ship nytimes.com

24 June: EU 'mini-summit' on migration gives Merkel and Macron no respite from domestic woes telegraph.co.uk 

25 June: Turkey’s EU accession talks at ‘standstill’ hurriyetdailynews.com

Hundreds of Migrants Storm Croatian Border yournews.com 

27 June: Albania refuses to host EU migrant centers arabnews.com 

28 June: European Council meeting - Conclusions www.consilium.europa.eu

3 July: Germanys Merkel survives bruising battle with rival Seehofer bbc.com

U.N. urges Jordan to open borders to fleeing Syrians reuters.com 

12 July: EU meeting: Germany, Italy, Austria aim to completely eliminate irregular immigration news4europe.eu 

20 July: Italy threatens to block ships from EUs Mediterranean migrant mission dw.com

Libya rejects EU plans for migrant centres on its territory reuters.com
 


29 July: Spain overtakes Italy as refugee arrival point dw.com 

2 August: Germany tightens asylum as Bavaria opens new processing centers handelsblatt.com

20 August: Greece emerges from final bailout - but 'still has long way to go' telegraph.co.uk 

28 August: German Far Right and Counterprotesters Clash in Chemnitz nytimes.com 

30 August: Italy renews migrant help plea at Vienna ministers meeting euronews.com 

31 August: Merkel’s Africa tour: Preventing migration from “upstream” en.nhandan.org.vn

12 September: EU unveils plans to ramp up border guard ednh.news 

20 September: Europe’s press fear a hard Brexit bbc.com




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